SEVENTH BRIEF: The “Closed” Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB)

The CMB is a long-wave radiation that appears to be everywhere. It has a maximum frequency of about 1.604 x 1011 Hz with wavelength of 1.87 x 10-3 m. This is in the microwave range of the electromagnetic spectrum and is about 2,850 times longer than the redline wavelength of hydrogen (6.562 x 10-7 m).

Light waves propagate at a constant velocity by the relationship λf = 300,000,000 m/sec, where λ is the wavelength in meters and f is the frequency in Hz (cycles per sec). The wavelength can be related to the temperature of a black body at the peak intensity of an electromagnetic frequency (fmax) and can be calculated with a form of Wien’s Distribution Law as follows:

T = h fmax /α k

Where: T = Temperature in degrees Kelvin, h = Plank’s Constant = 6.6260755 x 10-34 J-sec, k = Boltzmann’s Constant = 1.389658 x 10-23 J/K and α = Maximization Constant = 2.821439

So the temperature related to the CMB (with maximum frequency of 1.604 x 1011 Hz) is about 2.73 K.

Now, according to Big Bang theorists, when the Universe exploded it generated a lot of heat and consequently very high temperature. Over some 13.8 billion years since, the Universe has expanded to a point where the temperature has dropped to 2.73 K. According to Big Bang theorists this CMB temperature is the remnants of the Big Bang and is “irrefutable” evidence that the Big Bang occurred. So the theory goes.

I guess that’s simple enough (or perhaps simple minded?). The word “irrefutable” is a bit strong for a theory based on flawed premise. Explained following, the non-symmetric field provides a more viable concept.

As a child I was perplexed with infinity. I remember often times trying to envision an infinite Universe, but always to no avail. Then one day my older brother told me his science teacher said Einstein thought if a rocket ship flew away from the earth in a straight line and just kept going, it would eventually return to the earth.

[I didn’t know it at the time, but this was my first encounter with Non-Symmetric Field Theory. Nevertheless, it was the most fascinating thing I had ever heard. That was sometime in 1956, the year Einstein’s Non-Symmetric Field Theory was published and the year following his death. I was 12 years old.]

The Universe is not infinite, it’s nonlinear. In essence, the Universe returns upon itself like the circumference of a circle or the surface of a sphere. Einstein referred to this concept as a “closed” coordinate system.

Since a light beam is traveling at the absolute maximum speed (the velocity of light) relative to an approached linear coordinate system, the Universe is very small relative to a light beam. In accordance with The Lorentz-Fitzgerald Contraction, the length of the cosmos in front of a light beam approaches zero relative to the light beam, and it takes no “time” to travel zero distance. So, a light source (such as the sun) projects light out into the Universe in all directions, and the light beams travel to the farthest point in the Universe very quickly (relative to the light beams). At the farthest distance from the light source, due to the nonlinear character of the Universe, the wavelength has expanded (red shifted) into the microwave range (1.87 x 10-3 m). By this account, the CMB wavelength is the maximum elongation of the most intense hydrogen spectral line. The CMB is the hydrogen light source that has expanded to the maximum due to the nonlinear skew of the space continuum. This obviously appears everywhere throughout the cosmos since hydrogen is the most abundant light source in the Universe.

This of course assumes the Universe is a closed nonlinear system and returns upon itself. Importantly, by this scenario the Universe is finite and concurs with conservation law. If the Universe is an “open system,” it does not. Regardless, neither infinity nor its inverse (creation) can be derived with scientific method. Philosophically infinity and creation may be arguable concepts, but science by definition requires valid empirical and analytical proof within the precincts of the conservation laws of physics.

In essence, if the Universe is an “open linear system” as Big Bang theorists believe, there is no scientific solution.